Background Eating out of home (OH) has been increasing due to social and contextual changes. This phenomenon varies according to age, region and eating location and can contribute to a poor diet quality. Overall, there is insufficient information on the nutrient intake and types of food groups consumed OH by the Portuguese population.
Objectives Describe and compare energy and nutrient intake and food groups (FG) consumption according to eating out patterns (EOP), by age groups.
Methods This analysis used data from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF;2015–2016) and includes 5005 individuals (3-84 years). Dietary intake was estimated by two non-consecutive days of food dairies in children (<10 years) or 24-hrs recalls for the other age groups. Four EOP were defined according to eating location: ‘Home’ (at least 80% of meals at home) ‘Other homes’, ‘School/Work’ and ‘Restaurants/Other Places’ (<80% of meals at home and the highest prevalence of consumption of meals in the respective location).
Results Consumption at Home contributed in 70.3% for total energy intake (TEI). Compared with ‘Home’ EOP, ‘Restaurants/other places’ was characterized by higher TEI (2110 vs. 1780 kcal;p<0.001 in adults), saturated fatty acids (in adults, adolescents and children) and sodium intake (in children and adults). ‘Restaurants/other places’ presented also the highest consumption of sweets/cakes/biscuits and non-alcoholic beverages. ‘School/work’ presented the highest fibre intake and fruit/vegetables/pulses consumption, significant in children, adolescents and adults. ‘Non-alcoholic beverages’ presented higher mean daily intakes in ‘Restaurants and other places’, in adults and adolescents. In adults, a higher odds of drinking alcoholic beverages in ‘Restaurants and other places’ was found (OR=1.73;IC95%:1.17-2.56).
Conclusion ‘School/work’ and ‘Restaurants/other places’ are the EOP more relevant when considering OH-consumption; the first seems to contribute to higher consumption of nutrient-dense foods and the second to higher consumption of energy-dense foods, reflecting different nutrient profiles.
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