Table 4

Bivariate analyses between undernutrition and feeding/caring practice variables

Background variableType of intervention and conditions†Stunting (N=1498)Underweight(N=1498)Wasting (N=1498)
Nutrition specificNutrition sensitiveEnabling environment(+) Stunted(−) Not stuntedP value (+) Under weight(−) Not underweightP value‡(+) Wasted(−) Not wastedP value‡
Categorical variables
Food preparation process
v67: rinse vegetable and fruit with safe waterX54879.265581.30.32924882.795579.70.2918983.2111480.10.528
: Cook meat thoroughly till meat juice is clearX40959.148359.90.75218160.371159.30.7937570.181758.70.024*
v69: store leftovers in cool places§X12718.414417.90.845118.822018.40.6161715.925418.30.604
v70: store staple food in container(s) with cover¶X19227.725331.40.126842836130.10.4813532.741029.50.51
v71: store utensils in cabinet after cleaningX9513.710713.30.82481615412.90.1572321.5139192.90.018*
v72: iodised table saltX53176.761876.7121872.793177.70.0677570.1107477.20.059
Food preparation conditions
v73: clean cooking fuel††X0020.20.5030020.210020.11
v74: indoor cooking facility‡‡X36853.248560.20.0716153.769257.80.2166863.678556.40.158
Infant and young child feeding
v75: breastfed in 1 hour after birth (n=754)§§X22396.149093.90.2286993.264494.70.5875391.466094.80.234
v76: exclusively breastfed (n=156)¶¶X2273.39575.40.817666.711175.50.6921066.710775.90.53
v77: continued breastfeeding at 1 year (n=104)***X3594.65480.60.078141007583.30.212787.58285.41
v78: introduction of solid, semi-solid and/or soft foods (n=132)†††X1354.28477.80.023*45093750.2075509275.40.129
v79: at least four of seven food groups consumed (n=605)‡‡‡X188.9276.70.32969.2397.20.61424.5437.70.763
v80: minimum meal frequency (n=605)§§§X3416.86816.91913.89317.20.6920.59316.60.53
Pre- and post-birth care
v81:≥4 antenatal care visitsX31445.434542.80.3225046.760943.80.61418927.323629.30.421
v82: facility-based deliveryX34549.942152.20.37815551.7611510.9475349.571351.30.764
v83: low birth weight (<2500 gram at birth)X8912.999110.262451513211.10.0721816.815911.50.119
v84: mother–child cosleepingXX63691.977796.4<0.001**26588.3114895.8<0.001**8790.7131694.60.123
Primary attendant for the child’s birth
Skilled birth attendant (physician, nurse and midwife)59686.170387.2Ref.25484.7104587.2Ref.9588.8120486.6Ref.
v85: traditional birth attendantX335.1354.70.709124.45650.87511675.20.084
v86: no health worker attendedX121.9131.70.84351.8201.8127840.216320.2<0.001**
v87: Do not know do not rememberX517.4556.80.687299.7776.40.05998.49770.556
Ownership of home-based records
v88: child vaccination card/handbookX36853.243654.10.75513946.366555.50.005*4239.376254.80.002*
v89: maternal health card/handbookX7210.48510.51361212110.10.3431413.114310.30.33
v90:child health card/handbookX12518.112715.80.246020192160.102142151.90.346
v91: maternal and child health card/handbookX142151.90.85382.7211.80.34632.8261.90.457
v92: birth certificateX517.4536.60.613010746.20.030*1312.1916.50.045*
v93: any home-based record(s)X5818467984.20.88724782.3101384.60.3778882.2117284.30.583
MeanSDMeanSDP value¶¶¶MeanSDMeanSDP value¶¶¶MeanSDMeanSDP value¶¶¶
Interval and ratio variables
v94: mother’s current height (cm)X153.77.02154.27.50.020*153.76.66154.17.430.117154.36.31547.350.676
  • *p<0.05,

  • †Categorisation based on the previous review (Black et al. 2013).15

  • ‡χ2 test (Fisher’s exact test)

  • §Cool places include: (i) refrigerator and (ii) under shadow.

  • ¶Materials of containers include: (i) plastic and (ii) metal.

  • **p<0.01.

  • ††Clean cooking fuel includes: (i) electricity; (ii) gas; and (iii) solar energy (WHO 2016).38

  • ‡‡Indoor cooking facility includes: (i) kitchen in a house and (ii) kitchen in a separate building. (Malla and Timilsina).39

  • §§Applicable only for children 0–24 months of age (n=754) (WHO 2010).37

  • ¶¶Applicable only for children 0–5 months of age (n=156) (WHO 2010).37

  • ***Applicable only for children 12–15 months of age (n=104) (WHO 2010).37

  • †††Applicable only for children 6–8 months of age (n=132) (WHO 2010).37

  • ‡‡‡Seven food groups are composed of: (i) grains/roots/tubers; (ii) legumes/nuts; (iii) milk products; (iv) flesh foods; (v) eggs; and (vi) other fruits and vegetables. Applicable only for children 6–23 months of age (n=605) (WHO 2010).37

  • §§§Minimum meal frequency is defined as: (i) 2 (meal/day) for breastfed children 6–8 months of age; (ii) 3 (meal/day) for breastfed children 9–23 months of age; and (iii) 4 (meal/day) for non-breastfed children 6–23 months of age. Applicable only for children 6–23 months of age (n=605) (WHO 2010).37

  • ¶¶¶Mann-Whitney U test.