Table 2

Adjusted OR and 95% CI for the association between sleep and COVID-19* (N=2884)

OR (95% CI)
Model 1†P valueP trendModel 2‡P valueP trendModel 3§P valueP trend
Number of sleeping hours at night0.87 (0.80 to 0.95)0.0010.88 (0.81 to 0.96)0.0030.89 (0.81 to 0.97)0.003
Number of daytime napping hours1.06 (1.01 to 1.12)0.021.06 (1.01 to 1.12)0.021.06 (1.01 to 1.11)0.03
Sleep disturbance
 Difficulty sleeping at night (yes)1.22 (0.98 to 1.52)0.081.15 (0.92 to 1.45)0.221.13 (0.90 to 1.42)0.29
 Often wake up at early hours and unable to get back to sleep (yes)1.09 (0.88 to 1.35)0.411.04 (0.83 to 1.29)0.730.99 (0.79 to 1.23)0.94
 Sleeping pill use >3 times/week (yes)1.42 (0.98 to 2.07)0.061.35 (0.92 to 1.96)0.121.27 (0.87 to 1.86)0.22
Self-reported sleep disturbance score¶
 No sleep problemRef0.07Ref0.22Ref0.40
 Self-report of having one sleep problem**0.85 (0.65 to 1.10)0.210.82 (0.63 to 1.07)0.140.79 (0.60 to 1.03)0.08
 Self-report of having two sleep problems††1.11 (0.84 to 1.46)0.461.04 (0.78 to 1.38)0.791.01 (0.76 to 1.35)0.95
 Self-report of having three sleep problems‡‡2.03 (1.28 to 3.24)0.0031.88 (1.17 to 3.01)0.011.72 (1.07 to 2.78)0.02
Any sleep disturbance (≥1 sleep problem)1.04 (0.85 to 1.26)0.720.98 (0.8 to 1.20)0.850.94 (0.77 to 1.16)0.57
  • Bold font denotes statistically significant associations.

  • *COVID-19 cases are defined as individuals with self-reported COVID-19-like illness (fever, cough, fatigue, loss of taste or smell) or a positive PCR or antibody test.

  • †Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, race and country.

  • ‡Model 2 additionally adjusted for specialty, presence of a medical condition and stress from work (feeling burned out).

  • §Model 3 additionally adjusted for frequency of contact with a patient with COVID-19 at work, close exposure to a patient with COVID-19 inside the workplace without personal protective equipment and close exposure outside the workplace.

  • ¶Sleep disturbance was defined as “yes” response to any of the following questions: a) Do you have difficulties falling asleep at night prior to the Covid-19 pandemic?, b) Do you often wake up in the early hours, unable to get back to sleep prior to the Covid-19 pandemic?, or c) Do you take sleeping pills more than 3 times per week prior to the Covid-19 pandemic?

  • **Having 1 sleep problem was defined as saying 'yes' to any of the three questions.

  • ††Having 2 sleep problems was defined as saying yes to two of the three questions.

  • ‡‡Having 3 sleep problems was defined as saying yes to all of the three questions.

  • Ref, reference.