Table 2

Characteristics of included cited articles (n=183) in the total set of 51 evidence assessment units reported in 33 reviews

n (%)
Main message of cited article
 Decrease BW/more beneficial32 (17)
 Neutral (no directional effect or association)39 (21)
 Increase BW/less beneficial54 (30)
 No conclusion directly relevant to the LES–BW relationship26 (14)
 Evidence insufficient to draw a conclusion20 (11)
 Unable to draw a conclusion from the paper9 (5)
 Missing data3 (2)
Cited article type
 Randomised controlled trial51(28)
 Observational study72 (40)
 Animal13 (7)
 Other1 (1)
 Systematic review with meta-analysis16 (9)
 Systematic review without meta-analysis9 (5)
 Narrative review18 (10)
 Missing data3 (2)
Cited article population
 Adults85 (46)
 Children49 (27)
 Both32 (17)
 Missing data17 (9)
Median (IQR)
Sample size
 Randomised controlled trials50 (25–155)
 Observational studies2760 (781–15 984)
Number of authors5 (3–7)
Journal impact factor, current (2018)3.97 (3.05–6.57)
Journal impact factor, last 5 years4.51 (3.33–7.67)
Years since cited article was published5 (2–10)
  • BW, body weight; IQR, Interquartile range; LES, low-energy sweeteners; n, sample size.