Table 1

Sample description for COVID-19 case and comparison groups

ComparisonCase definitionComparison group definitionSample sizeAncestry
Any COVID-19 case versus population controlsLaboratory/Physician confirmed OR self-reported positiveEveryone that is not a case (eg, the population)17 965 cases,
1 370 547 controls
93.6% EUR
3.1% EAS/SAS
1.8% AFR
<1% AMR
<1% HIS
Hospitalised COVID-19 cases versus population controlsLaboratory/Physician confirmed AND hospitalised for COVID-19Everyone that is not a case (eg, the population)7885 cases, 961 804 controls93.7% EUR
3.5% EAS/SAS
1.1% AFR
1.4% ARAB
<1% AMR
<1% HIS
Severe respiratory COVID-19 cases versus population controlsLaboratory confirmed AND hospitalised AND respiratory support or deathEveryone that is not a case (eg, the population)4336 cases,
623 902 controls
99.6% EUR
<1% AMR
COVID-19-positive cases versus COVID-19-negative controlsLaboratory/Physician confirmed OR self-reported positiveLaboratory confirmed OR self-reported negative11 085 cases, 116 794 controls86.5% EUR
9.6% AFR
3.2% HIS
Hospitalised versus non-hospitalised COVID-19Laboratory/Physician confirmed AND hospitalised for COVID-19Laboratory or physician confirmed COVID-192430 hospitalised
8478 non-hospitalised
75.3% EUR
12.6% AFR
6.4% ARAB
4.7% HIS
  • AFR, African; AMR, Ad Mixed American; ARAB, Arabic; EAS/SAS, East Asian/South Asian; EUR, European; HIS, Hispanic.