Table 1

Baseline characteristics and previous treatment

Baseline characteristicsSmoker (n=307)Ex-smoker (n=934)Non-smoker (n=3983)P value
Female95 (30.9)*160 (17.1)1909 (47.9)*†<0.001
Male212 (69.1)774 (82.9)†‡2074 (52.1)
Hypertension171 (55.9)‡597 (64.3)†‡1758 (44.2)<0.001
Dyslipidaemia100 (32.9)450 (48.6)†‡1166 (29.4)<0.001
Type 1 diabetes mellitus2 (0.7)6 (0.6)22 (0.6)<0.001
Type 2 diabetes mellitus61 (19.9)255 (27.3)†‡623 (15.6)
Insulin therapy63 (20.5)261 (27.9)†‡645 (16.2)<0.001
Obesity74 (28.1)‡228 (30.6)‡679 (19.8)<0.001
Renal failure30 (9.8)‡100 (10.7)‡204 (5.1)<0.001
Lung disease93 (30.3)‡367 (39.3)†‡552 (13.9)p<0.001
Atrial fibrillation7 (2.3)53 (5.7)†‡136 (3.4)0.02
HIV6 (2)‡6 (0.6)8 (0.2)<0.001
Heart disease82 (27)‡355 (38.3)†‡754 (19.1)<0.001
Cerebrovascular disease17 (5.6)104 (11.4)†‡277 (7.1) <0.001
Connective disease12 (4)29 (3.2)107 (2.7)0.389
Liver disease 29 (9.6)‡56 (6.1)‡105 (2.7)<0.001
Cancer49 (16.2)‡210 (22.8)†‡431 (11)<0.001
Immunosuppression41 (14.4)‡99 (11.2)‡235 (6.3)<0.001
Partially dependent19 (6.2)95 (10.2)†366 (9.2)0.036
Totally dependent4 (1.3)40 (4.3)†164 (4.1)†
Home oxygen therapy11 (3.6)68 (7.3)†‡81 (2.0)0.036
Aspirin70 (23.3)‡239 (26.2)‡462 (11.7)<0.001
Other antiplatelet17 (5.7)‡63 (7.0)‡110 (2.8)<0.001
Anticoagulants28 (9.3)143 (15.7)†‡358 (9.1)<0.001
ACEI/ARB124 (41.5)‡447 (48.4)†‡1263 (32.0)<0.001
Beta blockers69 (23.0)‡230 (25.1)‡530 (13.4)<0.001
Beta2 agonist43 (14.4)‡198 (21.8)†‡287 (7.3)<0.001
Glucocorticoids28 (9.4)180 (19.7)†‡258 (6.5)<0.001
Vitamin D supplement36 (12.0)113 (12.3)401 (10.2)0.119
Benzodiazepines55 (18.5)‡155 (16.9)‡564 (14.3)0.027
  • Values are n (%). All p values were determined by using an analysis of variance with Bonferroni method.

  • *P<0.05 compared to ex-smokers.

  • †P<0.05 compared to smoker subjects.

  • ‡P<0.05 compared to non-smoker subjects.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.