Table 2

Ordinal regressions on subject proficiencies with background variables

Background variablesMathematical proficiencyNational language proficiency
B: Coefficient estimate95% CI P-valueB: Coefficient estimate95% CI P-value
Academic variables
 Attendance rate (%)0.027(0.005–0.048)0.014*0.017(0.042–0.076)<0.001**
 Grade *(Dropped due to multicollinearity)(Dropped due to multicollinearity)
Nutrition and food security variables
Stunting
  Stunted(Reference)(Reference)
  Not stunted0.620(0.105–1.136)0.018*0.925(-0.499–0.549)0.925
Underweight
  Underweight(Reference)(Reference)
  Not underweight(Dropped due to multicollinearity)(Dropped due to multicollinearity)
Thinness
  Thin(Reference)(Reference)
  Not Thin0.681(-0.076–1.432)0.0761.007(0.160–1.853)0.020*
Overweight
  Overweight(Reference)(Reference)
  Not overweight−0.917(-2.988–1.154)0.3850.936(-1.764–3.636)0.497
 Number of meals on the previous day−0.439(-2.226–1.349)0.630−0.700(-2.438–1.039)0.430
 Household diet diversity score (%)0.160(-0.026–0.345)0.0910.080(-0.114–0.274)0.419
Socio-demographic variables
Gender
  Male−0.152(-0.597–0.505)0.505−0.425(-0.899–0.050)0.079
  Female(Reference)(Reference)
 Age(months)0.046(0.030–0.062)<0.001**0.059(0.042–0.076)<0.001**
 Number of household members(person)0.113(-0.026–0.251)0.1110.059(-0.084–0.203)0.417
Socio-economic variables
Household’s ownership of land
  Own land for house/farm(Reference)(Reference)
  Don’t own land for house/farm−0.279(-0.273–0.832)0.3210.378(-0.197–0.953)0.197
Household’s ownership of mobile phone
  Own mobile phone(Reference)(Reference)
  Don’t own mobile phone−0.172(-0.655–0.321)0.494−0.487(-1.012–0.038)0.069
Major income source of child’s household
  Daily labour(Reference)(Reference)
  Agriculture and crop sales−0.180(-0.789–0.428)0.561−0.288(-0.933–0.357)0.381
  Selling, trading and commerce−0.864(-1.578–−0.149)0.018 *−0.318(-1.073–0.437)0.409
  Skilled wage labour−0.557(-1.397–0.282)0.193−0.238(-1.135–0.659)0.603
  Unskilled wage labour−0.138(-1.094–0.819)0.7780.044(-0.999–1.087)0.934
  Handicraft and small-scale industry−0.786(-1.695–0.124)0.090−0.359(-1.304–0.585)0.456
  Livestock and sales of animal0.010(-1.947–1.966)0.992−1.170(-2.932–0.591)0.193
  Others †1.139(-1.231–3.510)0.34615.454(15.454–15.454)n.a.‡
Education attainment of mother/caregiver
  Dropped out from primary school(Reference)(Reference)
  Never gone to school0.148(-1.421–1.124)0.819−0.150(-1.502–1.201)0.827
  Primary school−0.455(-0.952–0.043)0.073−0.351(-0.883–0.181)0.196
  Secondary school−0.571(-1.347–0.206)0.1500.575(-1.393–0.242)0.168
  High school15.703(15.703–15.703)n.a.‡15.278(15.278–15.278)n.a.‡
  University and other higher education−0.727(-4.440–2.986)0.701−1.104(-4.741–2.533)0.552
Regression model parameters R 2=0.220, P<0.001 R 2=0.239, P<0.001
  • *Indicates either first grade or second grade.

  • †Includes: (1) remittance from family members; (2) government allowance (eg, pension); and (3) begging and assistance.

  • ‡SPSS was unable to calculate p value.

  • § *P <0.05, **P <0.01

  • n.a., not applicable.