Table 1

Demographic characteristics of the study population

UK (n=372 720)USA (n=45 757)SE (n=27 373)
Supplement usersSupplement usersSupplement users
YesNoYesNoYesNo
N (%)175 652 (47.1%)197 068 (52.9%)32 314 (70.6%)13 443 (29.4%)13 422 (49%)13 951 (51%)
SARS-CoV-2 positive, n (%) 10 508 (6%)13 013 (6.6%)2002 (6.2%)1211 (9%)1806 (13.5%)2206 (15.8%)
Females, n (%) 123 462 (70.3%)125 651 (63.8%)22 817 (70.6%)8210 (61.1%)9694 (72.2%)9088 (65.1%)
White, n (%) 163 479 (93.1%)188 030 (95.4%)28 143 (87.1%)11 757 (87.5%)13 411 (99.9%)13 943 (99.9%)
Current smoker, n (%) 6004 (3.4%)10 773 (5.5%)1252 (3.9%)924 (6.9%)735 (5.5%)795 (5.7%)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Age, years49.57 (14.2)46.26 (14.4)56.24 (15.2)47.8 (16.0)49.0 (13.0)46.63 (12.9)
BMI, kg/m2 26.59 (5.6)27.04 (5.7)27.27 (5.9)27.21 (6)26.1 (4.8)26 (4.7)
IMD, median (IQR)7 (5)6 (5)
DQI, median (IQR)11 (3)11 (3)
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Omega-339 263 (22.4%)8663 (26.8%)3039 (22.6%)
Probiotics20 449 (11.6%)7268 (22.5%)1715 (12.8%)
Garlic7235 (4.1%)1137 (3.5%)941 (7%)
Multivitamins77 034 (43.9%)18 843 (58.3%)5496 (41%)
Vitamin D86 190 (49.1%)19 444 (60.2%)6722 (50.1%)
Vitamin C46 755 (26.6%)10 136 (31.4%)4045 (30.1%)
Zinc21 776 (12.4%)4330 (13.4%)2394 (17.8%)
Type 2 diabetes5047 (2.9%)4842 (2.5%)1787 (5.5%)437 (3.3%)331 (2.5%%)251 (1.8%%)
Cancer2178 (1.2%)1902 (1%)977 (3%)217 (1.6%)157 (1.2%)130 (0.9%)
Asthma27 146 (15.5%)26 020 (13.2%)5015 (15.5%)1788 (13.3%)2039 (15.2%)1673 (12%)
Heart disease5708 (3.3%)5278 (2.7%)2388 (7.4%)590 (4.4%)654 (4.9%)592 (4.2%)
Eczema22 896 (13%)23 454 (11.9%)3423 (10.6%)1346 (10%)1768 (13.2%)1779 (12.8%)
Hay fever79 024 (45%)80 114 (40.7%)17 000 (52.6%)6256 (46.5%)5497 (41%)5256 (37.7%)
Kidney disease1702 (1%)1542 (0.8%)630 (2%)143 (1.1%)117 (0.9%)102 (0.7%)
Lung disease24 651 (14%)22 924 (11.6%)4331 (13.4%)1329 (9.9%)1894 (14.1%)1488 (10.1%)
  • Self-reported comorbidities were not asked at sign-up and therefore not reported by all subjects.

  • BMI, body mass index; DQI, Diet Quality Score; IMD, index of multiple deprivation; SE, Sweden.