Table 2

Characteristics of vitamin D instruments and association with measured vitamin D status in UK Biobank (n=401 460)

N=10 000N=1 300 000
Instrument A536915
 GCrs11723621GA0.29−0.192.9E-168914719 072
Instrument B374746
Instrument C*5600
  • Source: Manousaki et al.22

  • *Characteristics of all SNPs in instrument C are shown in online supplemental table 1.

  • Beta-vitD, beta-coefficient for association of an additional effect allele with an SD change in serum vitamin D in the log scale; EA, effect allele; EAF, effect allele frequency; F-statistic, measure of instrument strength, calculated as described in the 'Methods' section, shown for approximate minimum and maximum sample sizes across the COVID-19 outcomes; NEA, non-effect allele; P-vitD, p value for the beta-coefficient; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism.