Table 1

Health influencer key

CHWCommunity Health WorkersLocal health educators who deliver health information and services to communities.
ASHAAccredited Social Health ActivistCHWs who help connect mothers to the formal healthcare system, including nutritional information.
AWWAnganwadi WorkerCHWs who provide nutritional and health education services to families.
AWCAnganwadi CentreA rural childcare centre. AWCs define the catchment areas for ASHAs and AWWs. Anganwadi means ‘courtyard shelter’.
ANMAuxiliary Nurse MidwifeCHWs based in health subcentres in India who first connect the community with health services. ANMs provide training and support for AWWs and ASHAs. The areas serviced by health subcentres are larger than AWCs and there may be 4–5 ASHAs (and AWCs) per ANM.
GovDocGovernment doctorProfessionally trained medical doctors working in the government healthcare system of India.
PrivClinPrivate clinicPrivately owned facilities that exist in parallel to the government health facilities.
SHGSelf-help groupsLocal community groups that provide educational and social support for members, typically meeting on a monthly basis.
FrRelNeighFriends, family members, neighbours, other relatives
RMP*Rural Medical PractitionerUncertified healthcare providers who nominally practise biomedicine but lack a formal approval or certification.
Pandit*A Hindu priest.
Maulvi*A Muslim religious leader.
Dai*Traditional midwives who help mothers through pregnancy and provide support and preparation for delivery.
  • *Dais are traditional birth attendants with a role similar to a midwife. Dais are not certified or trained by the government; however, they have extensive experience with the birthing process and learn through intergenerational knowledge. RMPs are another potential source of health-relevant information in Bihar. RMPs lack formal healthcare accreditation but often have some biomedical training. Religious leaders may also be consulted by women on a range of topics including rituals associated with the perinatal period. Pandits and Maulvis are, respectively, Hindu and Muslim religious leaders. There is a sizeable Muslim population in Bihar; however, 83% of the population practises Hinduism.37