Table 1

Case reports on vitamin C deficiency and chronic alcohol intake

ReferenceCountrySexAgeClinical signsAlcohol intake (drinks/day)Plasma vitamin C (µmol/L)
(RR 28–70)
Other deficienciesReplacement regimen
Vitamin C/day (mg)RoutePeriod
Chaudhry et al 11 EnglandMale44Lethargy,FH, PH, GChronic<3NS800Oral2 weeks
Wang and Still12 USAMale65E, PH, G, CH10–156.82NS1000NS5 days
500NSAfter 5 days
Léger13 CanadaMale47Lethargy, E, PH8–10<10NSNSOralNS
Takeshima et al 14 JapanMale45P, G, Oe131.13Vit B9: 1.3 ng/mL (RR 2.4–12.0)
Hb: 58 g/L (>135)
1200Oral3 weeks
Gião Antunes et al 15 PortugalMale40GH, FH, PO127.95Vit B9: 2.1 ng/mL (RR 2.4–12.0)
Hb: 71 g/L (>135)
300Oral2 weeks
100Oral1 month after 2 weeks
Lux-Battistelli and Battistelli16 USAMale54Lethargy, weak, P, GHDependent3.1NS1000Oral8–10 weeks
Male24Fatigue, weak, dyspnoea, Oe14–28<3NS1000Oral12 weeks
Male48FH, unsteady34<24NS500Oral12 weeks
Bennett et al 17 USAMale64E, GH, unsteady weight loss8–105.68Vit B9: 2 ng/mL (RR >4.7)
Vit B6: <2 µg/L (RR 5–50)
  • CH, corkscrew hairs;E, ecchymoses; FH, follicular hyperkeratosis; G, gingivitis; GH, gingival hypertrophy; Hb, haemoglobin; NS, not specified; Oe, oedema; P, petechiae or purpura; PH, perifollicular haemorrhages; PO, periodontitis; RR, reference range; Vit, vitamin.