Table 1

Baseline characteristics by study group (n=143)

InterventionControlP value
Sociodemographicsn=91n=52
Age, mean±SD56±1062±14<0.001*
Female, n (%)70 (77)31 (57)0.024†
Married/ in relationship, n (%)73 (81)39 (80)0.925†
Participated with family, n (%)26 (29)15 (29)0.852†
 Men12 (57)7 (33)0.215†
 Women14 (20)8 (26)0.603†
Education, n (%)0.266†
 Lower secondary school21 (23)13 (27)
 Higher secondary school29 (32)17 (35)
 High school21 (23)5 (10)
 University19 (21)14 (29)
Anthropometricsn=90n=51
Weight (kg), mean±SD85±1980±180.113‡
BMI (kg/m²), mean±SD28.7±5.427.0±6.50.020
 Participants with overweight/ obesity§, n (%)67 (74)28 (55)0.015†
Waist circumference (cm), mean±SD98±1498±170.770‡
 Participants with elevated risk¶, n (%)60 (67)31 (61)0.465†
Blood parametersn=81n=51
lipids
Total-C (mg/dL), mean±SD196±33193±460.692*
 Participants with elevated risk**, n (%)39 (48)23 (45)0.858†
LDL-C (mg/dL), mean±SD125±36127±410.836‡
 Participants with elevated risk††, n (%)36 (46)25 (49)0.867†
LDL/HDL ratio, mean±SD2.2±1.02.5±1.10.117*
HDL-C (mg/dL), mean±SD65±1956±180.038*
 Participants with elevated risk‡‡, n (%)7 (9)13 (25)0.010†
TG (mg/dL), mean±SD121±69125±760.612*
 Participants with elevated risk§§, n (%)17 (21)11 (22)1.000†
Diabetic parametersn=81n=51
FG (mg/dL), mean±SD95±1597±260.032*
 Participants with elevated risk¶¶, n (%)20 (25)25 (49)0.004†
HbA1c (%), mean±SD5.4±0.65.6±0.50.001*
 Participants with elevated risk***, n (%)14 (18)17 (33)0.057†
n=76n=51
FI (µU/mL), mean±SD10±611±80.760*
HOMA-IR, mean±SD2.4±1.72.8±2.90.571*
 Participants with impaired insulin sensitivity†††, n (%)28 (37)22 (43)0.579†
Vital parametersn=89n=51
SBP (mm Hg), mean±SD136±20131±200.148*
 Participants with elevated risk‡‡‡, n (%)70 (79)36 (71)0.310†
DBP (mm Hg), mean±SD86±181±90.002*
 Participants with elevated risk§§§, n (%)64 (72)31 (61)0.192†
Dietary intake
Energy intake (kcal/day), mean±SD1815±4242028±450<0.001*
Adherence to provegetarian food pattern¶¶¶, n (%)n=82n=450.964†
 Very low10 (12)6 (13)
 Low21 (26)10 (22)
 Moderate34 (42)20 (44)
 High11 (13)7 (16)
 Very high6 (7)2 (4)
  • Bold p-values ≤0.05

  • *Mann-Whitney U test.

  • †Fisher’s exact test.

  • ‡Two-sample t-test.

  • §BMI ≥25 kg/m².

  • ¶≥102 cm and ≥88 cm for men and women, respectively.

  • **≥200 mg/dl

  • ††≥130 mg/dl

  • ‡‡≤40 and 45 mg/dL for men and women, respectively.

  • §§≥150 mg/dL.

  • ¶¶≥100 mg/dL.

  • ***>5.7%.

  • †††HOMA-IR ≥2.5.

  • ‡‡‡≥120 mm Hg.

  • §§§≥80 mm Hg.

  • ¶¶¶Adherence according to points of the provegetarian food score: very low (<30 points), low (30–34 points), moderate (35–39 points), high (40–44 points) and very high (>44 points).24

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FG, fasting glucose; FI, fasting insulin; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, Homeostasis Model Assessment-insulin resistance; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TG, triglycerides; Total-C, total cholesterol.