Table 2

Change in food price index and dietary risk factors* used for health and health system costs modelling for tax policies

Tax packagePopulation weighted price index after tax†∆ BMI (kg/m2)∆ Fruit (g/day)∆ Vegetables (g/day)∆SSB (g/day)∆ Sodium (g/day)∆ Poly unsaturated fat intake (% total energy)∆ Red meat (g/day)∆ Processed meat (g/day)∆ Nuts and seeds (g/day)
American Samoa – excise tax and import tariff on SSB0.8%−−18.9−
Barbados – 10% ad valorem tax on SSB0.3%−−
Bermuda – 50% ad valorem tax on SSB1.8%−0.310.10.2−56.1−
Denmark – excise duties on saturated fat, chocolate and sweets2.5%−0.900.1−0.30.4−0.080.0−0.5−1.4−0.1
Dominica – excise taxes on SSB and sugary foods0.5%−−
Finland – excise duties on SSB, confectionery and ice cream0.8%−−18.9−
Gulf Cooperation Councilad valorem excise tax on carbonated beverages and energy drinks1.6%−−65.3−
Mexico – excise tax on SSB and 8% ad valorem tax on junk food1.3%−0.360.1−0.1−14.1−−0.7
Norway – excise taxes on SSB, chocolate and sugar products1.4%−−12.9−
Palau – import tax on SSB0.3%−−
  • *The average effect of the tax has been applied to the diet of the average person (Māori male, Māori female, non-Māori male, non-Māori female), as price elasticities take into account the lack of effect on some individuals.

  • †Using Bayesian price elasticity.

  • BMI, body mass index; SSB, sugar-sweetened beverages .