Table 2

Unadjusted maternal and neonatal biochemical markers* and maternal and neonatal biochemical deficiencies†

Biochemical markers*Group A (baseline: n=119; final: n=79; neonatal: n=71)Group B (baseline: n=115; final: n=86; neonatal: n=76)Group C (baseline: n=111; final: n=92; neonatal: n=85)P value‡
Serum 25(OH)D (ng/mL)
Calcium (mg/dL)
Phosphorus (mg/dL)
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L)
Biochemical deficiencies†
 Serum 25(OH)D deficiency (<20 ng/mL)
  Baseline116 (97.5)109 (94.8)107 (96.4)0.553
  Final60 (75.9)73 (84.9)83 (90.2)0.006§
  Neonatal48 (64.9)56 (73.7)78 (91.8)0.001§
Calcium deficiency (<8.6 mg/dL)
  Baseline37 (31.4)41 (35.7)33 (29.5)0.670
  Final45 (56.9)46 (53.5)54 (58.7)0.710
  Neonatal39 (54.9)37 (48.7)47 (55.3)0.362
  • Group A: 4000 IU/day; group B: 2000 IU/day; group C: 400 IU/day (control group).

  • Maternal markers and deficiencies are assessed at both baseline and endline. Neonatal markers and deficiencies are assessed at birth.

  • *Data presented as mean±SD.

  • †Data presented as n (%).

  • ‡P values for continuous variables using ANOVA; categorical variable p values are from χ2 test.

  • §Significant difference between groups.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance.