Table 2

HRs and 95% CIs for the association of periodic fasting with lower risk of hospitalisation/mortality in patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19

Cox models: Periodic fasting plus the indicated variablesHR (95% CI) for periodic fasting P value for periodic fasting
Univariable0.61 (0.42 to 0.90)0.013
Models with 1–2 covariables* (with each variable having multivariable p<0.15†)
Age‡0.62 (0.42 to 0.92)0.017
Age‡, race0.65 (0.44 to 0.96)0.03
Age‡, ethnicity‡0.62 (0.42 to 0.92)0.018
Age‡, alcohol consumption0.63 (0.42 to 0.94)0.023
Age‡, smoking0.65 (0.44 to 0.97)0.036
Age‡, hyperlipidaemia history0.62 (0.42 to 0.92)0.017
Age, history of CAD‡0.62 (0.42 to 0.91)0.015
Age‡, MI history‡0.63 (0.43 to 0.93)0.02
Age‡, history of HF0.63 (0.43 to 0.93)0.019
Age‡, diabetes history0.63 (0.43 to 0.93)0.021
Age‡, TIA history‡0.62 (0.42 to 0.92)0.017
Age‡, renal failure history‡0.62 (0.42 to 0.92)0.018
Age‡, history of anxiety0.61 (0.41 to 0.91)0.014
Models with three covariables* (with each variable having multivariable p<0.05)
Age‡, ethnicity,‡ MI history‡0.63 (0.43 to 0.93)0.019
Age‡, ethnicity, ‡ TIA history‡0.62 (0.42 to 0.92)0.018
Age‡, ethnicity‡, renal failure history‡0.63 (0.42 to 0.93)0.021
  • *A maximum of four variables per model (including periodic fasting) were allowed given the number of hospitalisations and deaths (46 events: 40 hospitalisations, 4 hospitalisations with death, 2 deaths without hospitalisation).

  • †Covariables with p>0.15 were: sex, BMI, history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation history, stroke history, cancer history, asthma history, COPD history, dementia, immune disease, history of liver disease, history of PAD, history of CABG, history of PCI, CAD severity, history of depression, education, income, employment status, marital status, physical exercise, cycling and walking.

  • ‡This variable had p<0.05 in the listed multivariable model.

  • BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary artery disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HF, heart failure; MI, myocardial infarction; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; TIA, transient ischemic attack.