Table 1

Definition of the marketing techniques

Marketing techniqueDefinition
Food and/or beverage shownAny visual food or beverage item. (For food, this does not include packaging. For beverage, this can include beverage cups as long as the post does not clearly show that the cup is empty. Background menu with images of food/beverage does not apply to this category as well as animated food/beverage unless it is part of the concept of the post)
Celebrity/influencer/sponsorshipsIncludes a reference to the person or organisation (must have over 10K followers) on the post or is partnering with McDonald’s
Healthy habitsPromotes healthy diet, exercise, conservation efforts, local farms, education or any other ideas that promote the well-being of the person or environment
Child-targetedShows a child, cartoons, Happy Meal, toys, characters (eg, from films) or any other child-related themes
Special price promotionsDiscount offers, 2-for-1 deals, buy-one-get-free deals or any other reduced-price promotions
Promote McDonald’s App, website or McDeliveryPromotes app, website or McDelivery in any way (eg, app store logo)
Free giveaway/voucherIncludes competitions with free prizes, free food offers and any other free giveaways that do not include purchasing another item
Culturally relevantIncludes holidays, famous monuments (has to be relevant to its country), religious symbols or any other reference to the country’s culture
EngagementEncourages to like, comment, read the bio or any other way to interact with the post
Philanthropy/charityUndertakes any charitable work
Emotional appealEvokes emotional reaction (eg, happiness) or allows to reminiscence
New branchMarkets a new regional McDonald’s that has opened
HumourAny post that attempts to use comic marketing (eg, memes, jokes, comic actions)