Table 1

Baseline demographic characteristics of women by quintiles of sucrose-sweetened beverages as percent energy intake: MoBa Cohort Study (n=60 027)*

Quintile 1
(n=12 005)
Quintile 2 (n=12 004)Quintile 3
(n=12 006)
Quintile 4
(n=12 006)
Quintile 5 (n=12 006)P value†
Intake of SSB, E%(<0.3)(0.3–0.7)(0.7–1.5)(1.5–3.9)(>3.9)
Median SSB intake, E%
Calories from SSBs,‡ E%0.1±0.10.5±0.11.1±0.22.5±0.79.0±6.2*
Intake of SSBs, mL3.0±4.123.8±9.048.8±15.4121±48459±356*
BMI,§ kg/m2 24.1±4.523.8±4.123.9±4.024.0±4.224.4±4.5*
Maternal age, years31.4±4.430.9±4.430.5±4.530.1±4.629.6±4.8*
Nulliparous, %43.445.745.242.540.0*
Smoking,§ %14.412.313.317.025.6*
Preterm,¶ %
Diabetes,** %*
Gestational hypertension,†† %
High education,‡‡ %33.333.430.425.218.0*
Physical activity ≥3 times/week, %55.653.648.744.937.0*
Weight gain ≥7 kg, %*
Total energy intake, kcal/day2179±5782312±5742229±5432330±6032413±627*
Energy from protein, E%16.3±2.115.8±1.915.6±1.815.2±1.814.1±2.0*
Energy from fat, E%31.3±5.031.6±4.531.9±4.331.8±4.330.6±4.4*
Energy from carbohydrates,
Added sugar, g/day42.0±25.449.4±25.450.7±24.361.8±28.294.1±46.8*
Added sugar, E%7.5±3.48.4±3.29.0±3.110.4±3.215.4±5.6*
Fibre, g/day32.6±11.433.1±10.630.5±9.630.4±10.028.8±10.0*
Sodium/potassium ratio0.76±0.180.77±0.180.78±0.170.78±0.170.79±0.18*
Orange juice/nectar, mL149±178163±176160±162178±182186±202 *
Artificial sweetened beverages, mL223±385143±290108±229100±217118±255*
Magnesium, mg/day410±120423±115397±105402±113384±112*
Calcium, mg/day1041±4261091±4281032±3931061±4291007±419*
Breastfeeding 6 months post-delivery, %79.983.483.080.774.6*
Juice/nectar, E%2.7±3.12.8±2.82.9±2.83.1±2.93.1±3.1*
Years of follow-up6.9±1.66.9±1.67.1±1.67.3±1.67.5±1.7*
  • *Values are means±SD or percentages.

  • †Trends in continuous and bivariate descriptive characteristics from low to high intake quintiles of SSBs %E were evaluated in linear and logistic regression, respectively, *P trend <0.001.

  • ‡Sugar-sweetened soda and cordial.

  • §Before pregnancy.

  • ¶Gestational age <37 weeks or when gestational age was missing a birth weight <2500 g.

  • **Diabetes mellitus (before or during pregnancy or unspecified).

  • ††With or without proteinuria diagnosed after 20 weeks of gestation, when systolic blood pressure was 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure was 90 mm Hg, or both.

  • ‡‡Any university or college education.

  • BMI, body mass index; E%, as percent of total energy; SSB, sucrose-sweetened beverage.