Table 1

Overview of country location, study design, outcome measures and risk of bias for included studies

RefRegion/countryStudy designLocal*Measured outcomeEvidence for effectiveness†Risk of bias
Nutrition education
S1SingaporeIndividually randomised parallel group trialNo Purchase—foods high in sugar +/−
S2SingaporeNon-randomised controlled pre/post-test studyNo Dietary intake— carbohydrate, protein, vegetable +
S3MauritiusNon-randomised controlled pre/post-test studyYes Dietary intake— calcium +
S4MauritiusNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyNo Dietary intake—fruit and vegetable +
Nutrition knowledge score +
S5American SamoaNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyYes Nutrition knowledge score +
S6GuamNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyYes Dietary intake—fruit and vegetable
Willingness to try fruit and vegetables
S7Puerto RicoNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyNo Dietary intake—daily energy and fibre, fruit and vegetable
S8Trinidad and TobagoCluster-randomised parallel group trialNo Dietary intake—fruit, vegetable, soda, fried food, high fat, salt or sugar food (HFSS). +/−
Nutrition knowledge score +
Attitudes to eating
Nutrition education plus additional support
S9SingaporeIndividually randomised parallel group trialYes Dietary intake— energy, carbohydrate, protein, total fat, cholesterol, calcium, dietary fibre, sodium
S10Puerto RicoIndividually randomised parallel group trialNo Dietary intake— bread, SSB (self-reported)
S11Trinidad and TobagoNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyNo Dietary intake—daily and 7-day fruit and vegetables +
S12Trinidad and TobagoNon-randomised controlled pre/post-test studyNo Nutrition knowledge attitude practice score (mean) +
Nutrition education plus practical skills
S13Dominican republicNon-randomised controlled pre/post-test studyYes Dietary intake—vitamin A-rich foods +/−
S14Federated States of MicronesiaNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyYes Dietary intake—frequency of consumption of various food groups +/−
S15SingaporeNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyNo Dietary intake—whole grains (self-reported)
Nutrition knowledge—wholegrain specific +
Actual or hypothetical tax
S16BarbadosInterrupted time series studyNo Sales—Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). +
S17SingaporeIndividually randomised multiarm parallel group trialNo Purchase of taxed products +
Advertising/marketing regulations
S18SingaporeNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyNo Dietary intake—HFSS, fruits and vegetables and nutrient dense foods +/−
Purchase—snacks (sweets and potato chips, burgers), fruit, vegetables +/−
Food provision
S19Puerto RicoNon-randomised controlled before-after studyNo Dietary intake—various macronutrient and micronutrients
Multi-level intervention
S20TongaNon-randomised controlled before-after studyYes Dietary intake—breakfast, fruit, vegetables, SSBs, fruit drink, and various snacks
Purchase—snack food from shop or takeaway after school +
S21FijiNon-randomised controlled pre/post-test studyYes Dietary intake—fruit, vegetable, soft drink, fruit drink/cordial
S22FijiNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyNo Dietary intake—mean population salt intake
S23SamoaNon-randomised uncontrolled pre/post-test studyNo Dietary intake salt
Nutrition knowledge, attitude and behaviour—salt related +/−
S24Solomon IslandsNon-randomised controlled before-after studyYes Dietary intake—energy, protein, fat +
  • Region: Pacific, Caribbean, AIMS.

  • ROB: low risk, moderate risk, high risk, severe/critical risk.

  • *Local defined as included process or outcome related components as defined in table 2.

  • †+ mostly significantly effective on outcomes measured; ± some significant positive effects plus some no change/insignificant effect; − no significant positive effects or negative effect.

  • AIMS, Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea; ROB, risk of bias.