Table 1

Categorisation of food items comprising 18 food groups for computing plant-based diet Indices (PDI)

Food groupFood itemTotal PDIhPDI
Plant food groups (Healthful)
 Whole grainsDark breads (eg, barbari, sangak), barley, maizePositivePositive
 FruitsMelon, watermelon, honeydew melon, plums, apricot, apples, cherries, sour cherries, peaches, nectarine, pear, fig, date, grapes, kiwi, pomegranate, strawberry, banana, persimmon, berry, oranges, greengage, tangerine, sweet lemon, grapefruitsPositivePositive
 VegetablesCauliflower, carrot, tomato, spinach, lettuce, cucumber,eggplant, onion, greens, green bean, green pea, celery, mushroom, pepper, garlic, turnip, pumpkin, courgettePositivePositive
 NutsAlmonds, peanut, walnut, pistachio, hazelnut, seedsPositivePositive
 LegumesLentils, split pea, beans, chick pea, fava bean, soy, mung beanPositivePositive
 Vegetable oilsOlive oil, vegetable oil used for cookingPositivePositive
 Tea and coffeeTea, coffeePositivePositive
Plant food groups (unhealthful)
 Fruit juicesApple juice, orange juice, melon juicePositiveReverse
 Refined grainsLavash bread, baguette bread, rice, pasta, biscuits, taftun breadPositiveReverse
 PotatoesFrench fries, baked or mashed potatoes, potato or corn chipsPositiveReverse
 Sugar sweetened beveragesCola, chocolate milkPositiveReverse
 Sweets and dessertsCookies, cakes, muffins, pies, chocolates, honey, jam, sugar cubes, sugar, candies, othersPositiveReverse
Animal food groups
 Animal fatButter added to food, butter used for cookingReverseReverse
 DairyLow-fat milk, low-fat yoghurt, cheese, Kashk, yoghurt drink, high-fat milk, high-fat yoghurt, cream cheese, cream, ice cream, dripped yoghurtReverseReverse
 Fish or seafoodCanned tuna, fishReverseReverse
 MeatBeef and veal, lamb, minced meat, sausage, deli meat, hamburger, chicken, heart, kidney, liver, tongue, brain, offal, rennetReverseReverse
 Misc. animal-based foodsPizza, mayonnaiseReverseReverse
  • hPDI, healthful PDI.