Table 1

Baseline demographic, anthropometric and biochemical variables of the three apple cider vinegar groups (group 1, 2 and 3) and the placebo group (group 4)

VariableGroup 1
(n=30)
Group 2
(n=30)
Group 3
(n=30)
Group 4 (placebo)
(n=30)
Gender (%)
Male40.0 (n=12)33.3 (n=10)36.6 (n=11)43.3 (n=13)
 Female60.0 (n=18)66.7 (n=20)63.4 (n=19)56.7 (n=17)
Age (years)17.2±5.218.1±5.517.6±5.117.8±5.7
Weight (kg)79.0±27.179.3±28.577.2±27.279.1±28.6
Height (cm)157.4±20.1158.6±22.2157.1±20.8156.9±21.4
BMI (kg/m2)30.6±3.130.2±2.830.0±3.030.7±3.2
Waist (cm)85.9±3.884.7±4.485.3±4.884.2±4.3
Hip (cm)106.4±3.5105.8±3.4105.1±3.9106.6±3.7
BFR (%)29.8±6.728.1±5.530.4±6.329.1±5.8
FBS (mg/dL)120.1±10.9118.9±13.1119.9±7.2113.6±12.5
TG (mg/dL)170.1±17.9167.2±13.2165.9±13.8168.1±18.2
TC (mg/dL)176.0±13.1173.6±16.3176.9±11.1178.5±11.5
  • All values are mean±SD unless stated otherwise

  • Group 1: daily intake of 5 mL of ACV; group 2: daily intake of 10 mL of ACV; group 3: daily intake of 15 mL of ACV.

  • ACV, apple cider vinegar; BFR, body fat ratio; BMI, body mass index; FBS, fasting blood sugar; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides.