Table 2

Life style characteristics of the study population by sex

VariableOverall
percentage (n)
Male percentage (n)Female
percentage (n)
P value
n=183n=69n=114
BMI
 Normal49.2% (90)63.8%(44 44))40.4%(46 46)
 Underweight11.5% (21)20.3% (14)6.1% (7)
 Overweight23.0% (42)15.9% (11)27.2% (31) 0.001
 Obese16.4% (30)0% (0)26.3% (30) 0.001
Smoking status
 Never68.3% (125)50.7% (35)78.9% (90) <0.001
 Current or ever31.7% (58)49.3% (34)21.1% (24)
Type of smoking (of smokers*)
 Puff cigarettes/pipe79.3% (46)94.1% (32)58.3% (14) 0.004
 Chewing tobacco leaves13.8% (8)2.9% (1)29.2% (7)
 Both chews and puffs6.9% (4)2.9% (1)12.5% (3)
Frequency of smoking*
 Daily87.9% (51)94.1% (32)79.2% (19) 0.085
 Intermittent12.1% (7)5.9% (2)20.8% (5)
Alcohol status
 Current drinkers32.2% (59)55.1% (38)18.4% (21) <0.001
 Past drinkers23.0% (42)21.7% (15)23.7% (27)
 Never drinkers44.8% (82)23.2% (16)57.9% (66)
Quantity of drinking†
 1–2 standard drink‡ a day35.6% (22)13.1% (5)80.9% (17) <0.001
 3–5 standard drinks a day50.8% (29)65.8% (25)19.1% (4)
 >5 standard drinks a day13.6% (8)21.1% (8)0.0% (0)
Physical activity
 Meets WHO recommendation
  No16.9% (31)15.9% (11)17.5% (20)0.779
  Yes83.1% (152)84.1% (58)82.5% (94)
  • Bold values represent significant differences (p< 0.05)

  • *Of current or ever smokers.

  • †Of current drinkers.

  • ‡Standard drink of alcohol: any alcohol drink that contains 10 g pure alcohol (WHO 2000). Equivalents of 1 standard alcoholic drink include; 285 mL (one bottle) of beer, 100 mL glass of wine (factory distilled or locally brewed) and 30 mL glass of a spirit or gin (factory distilled or locally brewed).16