Table 2*†

Predicted effects of macronutrient replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids with PUFA, MUFA and carbohydrate on lipoprotein lipids based on results from controlled feeding trials* Predicted effects* on lipoprotein lipids of replacing 5% of energy from saturated fatty acids with the 5% of energy from the specified dietary component, mg/dL.

Dietary componentLDL-CTGHDL-C
  • Results are summarised from controlled feeding trials of subjects with average to mildly dyslipidaemic baseline levels of lipoprotein lipids. Effects may be more pronounced in those with higher baseline values. Taken from ref 4.

  • A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials showed greater improvements in LDL-C with whole grains versus refined grains.23 Compared with refined grains, whole grains reduced LDL-C by 3.48 mg/dL (95% CI 5.8 to 1.16; p<0.01). TG and HDL-C did not significantly improve in response to whole grains versus refined grains (TG mean difference −3.5 mg/dL, 95% CI −7.1 to 0.9, p=0.10; HDL-C mean difference −0.4, 95% CI −1.2 to 0.8, p=0.59).

  • CHO, Carbohydrate; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; TG, Triglycerides.