Nutrient | Baseline (n, % achieving target) | Significance | 3 months (n, % achieving target) | Significance | 6 months (n, % achieving target) | Significance | 12 months (n, % achieving target) | Significance | ||||
GLB | GLB+NGx | P value | GLB | GLB+NGx | P value* | GLB | GLB+NGx | P value | GLB | GLB+NGx | P value | |
Individualised calorie target† | 20, 37.7% | 26, 44.8% | 0.45 | 22, 50.0% | 22, 52.4% | 0.86 | 23, 57.5% | 15, 44.1% | 0.25 | 16, 57.1% | 17, 56.7% | 0.97 |
<25% kcal from total fat | 6, 11.3% | 5, 8.4% | 0.61 | 6, 13.6% | 7, 16.7% | 0.87 | 6, 15.0% | 6, 17.6% | 0.76 | 0, 0.0% | 8, 25.8% | <0.01^{a} |
Group-based total fat target‡ | 6, 11.3% | 23, 39.0% | <0.01^{b} | 6, 13.6% | 27, 64.3% | <0.01 ^{c} | 6, 15.0% | 19, 55.9% | <0.01^{d} | 0, 0.0% | 18, 58.1% | <0.01^{e} |
10%–35% kcal from protein | 52, 98.1% | 59, 100.0% | 0.47 | 43, 97.7% | 42, 100.0% | 0.99 | 40, 100.0% | 34, 100.0% | 1.00 | 25, 89.3% | 31, 100.0% | 0.10 |
Group-based protein target§ | 52, 98.1% | 44, 74.6% | <0.01 ^{f} | 43, 97.7% | 31, 70.5% | 0.01 ^{g} | 40, 100.0% | 25, 73.5% | <0.01 ^{h} | 27, 96.4% | 22, 71.0% | 0.01^{i} |
<10% kcal from saturated fat | 14, 26.4% | 14, 23.7% | 0.74 | 21, 47.7% | 22, 52.4% | 0.57 | 15, 37.5% | 15, 44.1% | 0.56 | 8, 28.6% | 18, 58.1% | 0.02 ^{j} |
Odds ratios: a. NA; b. 5.00; c. 11.40; d. 7.18; e. NA; f. 17.727; g. 15.258; h. NA; i. 11.045; j. 3.46.
3 months: GLB group: n=44, GLB+NGx group: n=42 (total n=86).
6 months: GLB group: n=40, GLB+NGx group: n=34 (total n=74).
12 months: GLB group: n=28, GLB+NGx group: n=31 (total n=59; n=58 for calories analysis as baseline weight data missing for n=1).
Fisher’s exact test used when expected counts were less than 5.
Baseline: GLB Group: n=53, GLB+NGx Group: n=59 (total n=112; n=111 for calories analysis as baseline weight data missing for n=1).
*Binary logistic regression, controlling for income.
†Calorie targets were individualised based on baseline weight as outlined in the GLB Programme curriculum (University of Pittsburgh, c2017).
‡Group-based total fat targets were: ≤25% of calories from total fat in the standard GLB group, 20%–35% of calories from total fat in the GLB+NGx ‘typical response’ group and 20%–25% of calories in the GLB+NGx ‘enhanced response’ group.
§Group-based protein targets were: 10%–35% if calories in the standard GLB group and in the GLB+NGx ‘typical response’ group and 25%–35% of calories in the GLB+NGx ‘enhanced response’ group.
GLB, Group Lifestyle Balance; NGx, nutrigenomics .