Table 5

Differences between groups for dietary adherence at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months

NutrientBaseline (n, % achieving target)Significance3 months (n, % achieving target)Significance6 months (n, % achieving target)Significance12 months (n, % achieving target)Significance
GLBGLB+NGxP valueGLBGLB+NGxP value*GLBGLB+NGxP valueGLBGLB+NGxP value
Individualised calorie target†20, 37.7%26, 44.8%0.4522, 50.0%22, 52.4%0.8623, 57.5%15, 44.1%0.2516, 57.1%17, 56.7%0.97
<25% kcal from total fat6, 11.3%5, 8.4%0.616, 13.6%7, 16.7%0.876, 15.0%6, 17.6%0.760, 0.0%8, 25.8% <0.01a
Group-based total fat target‡6, 11.3%23, 39.0% <0.01b 6, 13.6%27, 64.3% <0.01 c 6, 15.0%19, 55.9% <0.01d 0, 0.0%18, 58.1% <0.01e
10%–35% kcal from protein52, 98.1%59, 100.0%0.4743, 97.7%42, 100.0%0.9940, 100.0%34, 100.0%1.0025, 89.3%31, 100.0%0.10
Group-based protein target§52, 98.1%44, 74.6% <0.01 f 43, 97.7%31, 70.5% 0.01 g 40, 100.0%25, 73.5% <0.01 h 27, 96.4%22, 71.0% 0.01i
<10% kcal from saturated fat14, 26.4%14, 23.7%0.7421, 47.7%22, 52.4%0.5715, 37.5%15, 44.1%0.568, 28.6%18, 58.1% 0.02 j
  • Odds ratios: a. NA; b. 5.00; c. 11.40; d. 7.18; e. NA; f. 17.727; g. 15.258; h. NA; i. 11.045; j. 3.46.

  • 3 months: GLB group: n=44, GLB+NGx group: n=42 (total n=86).

  • 6 months: GLB group: n=40, GLB+NGx group: n=34 (total n=74).

  • 12 months: GLB group: n=28, GLB+NGx group: n=31 (total n=59; n=58 for calories analysis as baseline weight data missing for n=1).

  • Fisher’s exact test used when expected counts were less than 5.

  • Baseline: GLB Group: n=53, GLB+NGx Group: n=59 (total n=112; n=111 for calories analysis as baseline weight data missing for n=1).

  • *Binary logistic regression, controlling for income.

  • †Calorie targets were individualised based on baseline weight as outlined in the GLB Programme curriculum (University of Pittsburgh, c2017).

  • ‡Group-based total fat targets were: ≤25% of calories from total fat in the standard GLB group, 20%–35% of calories from total fat in the GLB+NGx ‘typical response’ group and 20%–25% of calories in the GLB+NGx ‘enhanced response’ group.

  • §Group-based protein targets were: 10%–35% if calories in the standard GLB group and in the GLB+NGx ‘typical response’ group and 25%–35% of calories in the GLB+NGx ‘enhanced response’ group.

  • GLB, Group Lifestyle Balance; NGx, nutrigenomics .