Table 1

Model inputs and data sources

Model inputData source
Total and F&V agricultural land, 2010–2018 (England)DEFRA, June Survey of Agriculture11
Provisional Agricultural Land Classification (England)Natural England14
F&V yield, estimated using area and production data, 2010–2018 (UK)DEFRA, Agriculture in the UK13
F&V supply, estimated using production, import and export data, 2010–2018 (UK)DEFRA, Horticulture Statistics12
F&V purchases, 2008-2016/2017 (UK)Family Food module of the Living Costs and Food Survey16
F&V waste at household level, 2012 (UK)Waste & Resources Action Programme17
Population projections, England, 2021–2030 (2016-based and mid-year)O27NS
F&V intake by age, sex and IMD, EnglandNational Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme Years 1–4 and 7–828
RR for CHD/ ischaemic stroke/ haemorrhagic stroke by serving of fruit/vegetable intake by ageMicha et al, 201719
CHD and stroke mortality projections for England by age, sex and IMD, 2021–2030Own estimations using data from the ONS
Impact of No Deal Brexit on F&V intake in England in 2021Seferidi et al, 201923
  • CHD, coronary heart disease; DEFRA, Department of Environment and Rural Affairs; F&V, fruit and vegetable; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; ONS, Office for National Statistics; RR, relative risk.