Table 5

Bivariate analyses between undernutrition and household environment variables

Background variableType of intervention and conditions†Stunting (N=1498)Underweight(N=1498)Wasting (N=1498)
Nutrition specificNutrition sensitiveEnabling environment(+) Stunted(−) Not stuntedP value ‡(+) Under-weight(−) Not underweightP value ‡(+) Wasted(−) Not wastedP value‡
Categorical variables
Type of water source for drinking and cooking
Not improved type of source of water§26438.230738.1Ref.1083646338.6Ref.3835.553338.3Ref.
v95: improved type of source of water¶X42861.849961.911926473561.40.4256964.585861.70.606
Availability of water at water source
On and off††11917.216620.6Ref.511723419.5Ref.1413.127119.5Ref.
v96: 24 hours a day ‡‡X57382.864079.40.0992498396480.50.3669386.9112080.50.124
Type of sanitation facility and excreta disposal
Not improved type of sanitation facility §§63892.275293.3Ref.26989.7112193.6Ref.10093.5129092.7Ref.
v97: improved type of sanitation facility ¶¶X547.8546.70.4243110.3776.40.024*76.51017.31
Domestic water treatment
Inappropriate or no water treatment52876.358973.1Ref.22675.389174.4Ref.7872.9103974.7Ref.
v98: appropriate water treatmentX16423.721726.90.1717424.730725.60.7672927.135225.30.73
Hand washing practices
v99: wash hand with soap or ash after toiletX26938.932740.60.52511739479400.7924239.355439.81
v100: wash hand with soap or ash before cookingX2633831539.10.7091143846438.70.8424138.353738.61
v101: wash hand with soap or ash before eatingX2493630437.70.51911538.343836.60.5934037.451336.90.918
MeanSDMeanSDP value ***MeanSDMeanSDP value***MeanSDMeanSDP value***
Interval and ratio variables
v102: total time for water collection (min) †††X57.658.754.460.20.0965558.55659.80.63867.973.85558.30.277
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01.

  • †Categorisation based on the previous review (Black et al. 2013).15

  • ‡χ2 test (Fisher’s exact test)

  • §Types of not improved source of water include: (i) unprotected well; (ii) unprotected spring; (iii) surface water (eg, river, lake and reservoir); (iv) vendor-provided water (eg, truck and cart); and (v) bottled water.

  • ¶Types of improved source of water include: (i) piped private household connection indoor/in yard; (ii) public standpipe; (iii) protected well (protected hand-dug well); (iv) protected spring; and (v) rain water collection.

  • **p<0.01.

  • ††For instance, water is available only when public water attendant is on duty.

  • ‡‡Includes 37 cases of ‘Do not know/do not remember’.

  • §§Types of not improved sanitation facilities include: (i) flush toilet not connected to sewerage system; (ii) latrine without slab; (iii) joint installation with other households; and (vi) outdoor defecation.

  • ¶¶Types of improved sanitation facilities include: (i) flush toilet connected to sewerage system/septic tank; (ii) ventilated latrine/pit; (iii) toilet connected to pit/latrines with slab; and (iv) other non-sewered sanitation systems.

  • ***Mann-Whitney U test.

  • †††The number of minutes spent reaching a water source and waiting there was measured by making enumerators physically walk.