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Retrospective analysis on the effect of Reverse Diabetes2 Now on kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes with impaired kidney function
  1. Nathalie Wilmsen1,
  2. Hanno Pijl2,
  3. Willem Geerlings1 and
  4. Gerjan Navis3
  1. 1 Research & Development, Voeding Leeft, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Division of Internal Medicine, Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum, Leiden, The Netherlands
  3. 3 Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Nephrology, Academic Hospital Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Nathalie Wilmsen; nathalie{at}


Objective Type 2 diabetes is one of the main causes of kidney damage. Recent intervention studies suggest that the progression of type 2 diabetes can be halted, or even brought into remission by lifestyle interventions. In a pragmatic trial, the Reverse Diabetes2 Now programme (RD2N, NL: Keer Diabetes2 Om), a multicomponent lifestyle intervention, reduced the need for bloodglucose lowering medications up to 24 months.

Research design and methods Here, we retrospectively investigate the effect of RD2N on markers of kidney function in patients selected for impaired kidney function at baseline (eGFR <70 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n=45). Baseline data were retrieved from the intervention database and follow-up data on renal markers were collected from routine medical records. Wilcoxon non-parametric tests were used to assess changes over 6 and 12 months.

Results After 6 months median eGFR increased significantly from 62.0 (IQR 55.5–65.0) to 69.0 (IQR 55.0–76.5) mL/min/1.73 m2 (p=0.002). Median albumin/creatinine ratio (n=26) remained within the normal range (<3 mg/mmol). The effect on eGFR was similar after exclusion of patients in whom medication was changed (median eGFR 62.0 ((IQR 59.5–66.0) to 69.0 (IQR 60.0–77.0) mL/min/1.73 m2, p=0.006, n=29), suggesting that the effect on eGFR is not related to medication changes. At 12 months, eGFR was not significantly changed (n=22, median eGFR 63.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (IQR 58.5–71.0), p=0.067).

Conclusions The retrospective nature of this study and the despite guidelines limited availability of renal markers in routine type 2 diabetes care are limiting. Nevertheless, these data support a favourable effect of RD2N on renal function. Further research, with proper documentation of renal function, urinary protein excretion and dietary intake, is needed to substantiate these results, ideally in a large-scale prospective cohort study.

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Weight management
  • Nutritional treatment
  • Dietary patterns
  • Blood pressure lowering

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as online supplemental information.

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Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as online supplemental information.

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  • Contributors NW retrieved the data and in cooperation with GN composed the concept manuscript. WG and HP critically revised the manuscript several times and added to the discussion. HP took on the role of guarantor.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests No, there are no competing interests.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.